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They also wove blankets, made rugs, and knit stockings. The Agent of the Company shall endeavour to set to all a good example in this respect. In the s, the French government sent engineer and economist Michel Chevalier to study industrial and financial affairs in Mexico and the United States.

The War of further compounded the financial woes of American merchants. The rovings were then spun into yarn, and the yarn woven into cotton cloth.

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Most of the year they tended fields and orchards, ate the food that they produced, and sold the surplus. Some, especially those who lived in Connecticut, made parts for clocks. What kind of world were the factory owners trying to create with these rules? The Embargo of and the War of played a pivotal role in spurring industrial development in the United States. In addition to the mechanization and centralization of work in the mills, specialized, repetitive tasks ased to wage laborers replaced earlier modes of handicraft production done by artisans at home.

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During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, artisans —skilled, experienced craft workers—produced goods by hand. From its origin in New England, manufacturing soon spread to other regions of the United States. All games of hazard and cards are prohibited within their limits and in the boarding-houses. Every individual who shall be notoriously dissolute, idle, dishonest, or intemperate, who shall be in the practice of absenting himself from divine service, or shall violate the Sabbath, or shall be addicted to gaming, shall be dismissed from the service of the Company.

The acute economic problems led some New England merchants, including Francis Cabot Lowell, to cast their gaze on manufacturing.

Early industrialization in the northeast

After sufficient time as a journeyman, a shoemaker could at last set up his own shop as a master Returns at Lowell Massachusetts furniture adult hot. Yarn no longer had to be put out to farm families for further processing. He returned to Massachusetts having memorized the des for the advanced textile machines he had seen in his travels, especially the power loom, which replaced individual hand weavers. They must on all occasions, both in their words and in their actions, show that they are penetrated by a laudable love of temperance and virtue, and animated by a sense of their moral and social obligations.

In the late s and early s, Great Britain boasted the most advanced textile mills and machines in the world, and the United States continued to rely on Great Britain for finished goods. In the s in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, Slater convinced several American merchants, including the wealthy Providence industrialist Moses Brown, to finance and build a water-powered cotton mill based on the British models. The most famous of these company towns was Lowell, Massachusetts. In Massachusetts, in addition to Lowell, they built new mill towns in Chicopee, Lawrence, and Holyoke.

For example, in one nine-month period, the numerous Rhode Island women who spun yarn into cloth on hand looms in their homes produced a total of thirty-four thousand yards of fabrics of different types.

Workers were organized the way that they had been in English factories, in family units. In the excerpt below, Chevalier describes the rules and wages of the Lawrence Company in All persons employed by the Company must devote themselves assiduously to their duty during working-hours. These mills introduced new modes of production centralized within the confines of the mill itself. These employees were not difficult to find.

Great Britain hoped to maintain its economic advantage over its former colonies in North America. Their domestic productivity increased the quantity of goods available for sale in country towns and nearby cities. Their success prompted the Boston Associates to expand.

This process proved attractive because it whittled production costs. This gave the owners and their agents control over their workers. Byseventy-eight new textile mills had been built in rural New England towns.

They could not swear or drink alcohol, and they were required to attend church on Sunday. In the case of shoes, for instance, American merchants hired one group of workers to cut soles into standardized sizes. And in Maine, they built a large mill in Saco on the Saco River.

The company started the northeastern textile industry by building water-powered textile mills along suitable rivers and developing mill towns around them. Some skilled British mechanics, including Samuel Slater, managed to travel to the United States in the hopes of profiting from their knowledge and experience with advanced textile manufacturing. Even in the South, the region that otherwise relied on slave labor to produce the very cotton that Returns at Lowell Massachusetts furniture adult hot the northern factory movement, more than two hundred textile mills were built.

The mill owners planted flowers and trees to maintain the appearance of a rural New England town and to forestall arguments, made by many, that factory work was unnatural and unwholesome. The new town was built on land the Boston Associates purchased in from the village of East Chelmsford at the falls of the Merrimack River, north of Boston. Specialization meant the work was broken down into specific tasks, and workers repeatedly did the one task ased to them in the course of a day.

How do you think those who believed all white people were born free and equal would react to them? The families who participated in the putting-out system were not skilled artisans. They had not spent years learning and perfecting their craft and did not have ambitious journeymen to pay. Most textiles, however, continued to be produced in New England before the Civil War. Alongside the production of cotton and woolen cloth, which formed the backbone of the Industrial Revolution in the United States as in Britain, other crafts increasingly became mechanized and centralized in factories in the first half of the nineteenth century.

Realizing their chances of inheriting a large farm or receiving a substantial dowry were remote, these teenagers sought other employment opportunities, often at the urging of their parents. Some farming families engaged in shoemaking or shoe assemblageas noted above. The most common part-time occupation, however, was the manufacture of textiles.

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The production of shoes provides a good example. All this manufacturing took place on the farm, giving farmers and their wives control over the timing and pace of their labor. At Waltham, cotton was carded and drawn into coarse strands of cotton fibers called rovings. Putting-out work proved a welcome source of extra income for New England farm families who saw their profits dwindle from new competition from midwestern farms with higher-yield lands.

Farm women spun woolen thread and wove fabric. Northern industrialization expanded rapidly following the War of Industrialized manufacturing began in New England, where wealthy merchants built water-powered textile mills and mill towns to support them along the rivers of the Northeast. Success in New England was repeated elsewhere. As never before, production relied on mechanized sources with water power, and later steam, to Returns at Lowell Massachusetts furniture adult hot the force necessary to drive machines. Company-owned boarding houses to shelter employees were constructed near the mills.

They woke early at the sound of a bell and worked a twelve-hour day during which talking was forbidden. The father was placed in charge of the family unit, and he directed the labor of his wife and children.

A different group of families cut pieces of leather for the uppers, while still another was employed to stitch the standardized parts together. They used the putting-out systemwhich the British had employed at the beginning of their own Industrial Revolution, whereby they hired farming families to perform specific tasks in the production process for a set wage. The operations of these mills irrevocably changed the nature of work by deskilling tasks, breaking down the process of production to its most basic, elemental parts.

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Bythirteen more mills had been established. The women lived in company-owned boarding houses to which they paid a portion of their wages. They must be capable of doing the work which they undertake, or use all their efforts to this effect. An apprenticeship would be followed by work as a journeyman a skilled worker without his own shop. The mechanization of formerly handcrafted goods, and the removal of production from the home to the factory, dramatically increased output of goods.

More than half turned out woolen goods, while the rest produced cotton cloth. Much of this part-time production was done under contract to merchants. In colonial times, people bought their shoes from master shoemakers, who achieved their status by living and working as apprentices under the rule of an older master artisan.

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InLowell and these wealthy investors, known as the Boston Associates, created the Boston Manufacturing Company. While young men could work at a variety of occupations, young women had more limited options. Therefore, they could not demand—and did not receive—high wages.

Inhe published Society, Manners, and Politics in the United Statesin which he recorded his impressions of the Lowell textile mills. All the work was now performed at a central location—the factory. As machines took over labor from humans and people increasingly found themselves confined to the same repetitive step, the process of deskilling began.

Lowell had toured English mills during a stay in Great Britain. The textile mills provided suitable employment for the daughters of Yankee farm families. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century, merchants in the Northeast and elsewhere turned their attention as never before to the benefits of using unskilled wage labor to make a greater profit by reducing labor costs.

By the time of the Civil War, textile factories had been built in New England. Slater understood the workings of the latest water-powered textile mills, which British industrialist Richard Arkwright had pioneered. Many made brooms, plaited hats from straw or palm leaves which merchants imported from Cuba and the West Indiescrafted furniture, made pottery, or wove baskets. Lowell convinced other wealthy merchant families to invest in the creation of new mill towns.

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All together, these factories employed more thanpeople and produced more than million yards of cloth. The mill buildings themselves were constructed of red brick with large windows to let in light. In return for their labor, the workers, who at first were young women from rural New England farming families, received wages. Many produced specialty goods, such as silks and printed fabrics, and employed skilled workers, including people working in their own homes. Other entrepreneurs copied them.

By midcentury, three hundred textile mills were located in and near Philadelphia. The Boston Manufacturing Company, shown in this engraving made in —, was headquartered in Waltham, Massachusetts. So, in an effort to prevent the knowledge of advanced manufacturing from leaving the Empire, the British banned the emigration of mechanics, skilled workers who knew how to build and repair the latest textile machines.